Part 4 of the paper:SWAZILAND SECONDARY/HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS RISKS THAT MAY PROMOTE HIV INFECTION AND THE SPREAD OF AIDS by NOZIPHO EUGENIA MNDEBELE, NATIONAL CURRICULUM CENTRE
Q. 12 and Q. 13 From the 2258 youth interviewed, 92 (4.1%) stated that they had been raped. Those 92 respondents were asked to give the age at which they had first been raped. Only 63 were willing to give that age. The responses are shown in Table P-5 below.
Q. 14 The respondents were further asked where the first rape took place. 127 responded positively, although previously only 92 respondents claimed to have been raped. The actual number of respondents who had been raped may have been higher than the 92 who responded or some respondents may have marked more than one location if they had been raped more than once.
Out of the 127 who responded to the question, 33.9% claimed to have been raped at the home of either the victim or the rapist. 30.7% were raped in the bush; 14.2% in a car; 8.6% in a hotel and 7.1% did not specify the location.
Q. 15 The youth were asked about the relationship between themselves and their first rapist. Of the 2258 youth questioned, 1676 said the question did not apply to them. A further 343 did not respond. 244 responded positively to the question. (Again, this number is larger than the initial number who climbed to have been raped.) As this topic is further discussed, more and more respondents are willing to answer the questions. The results of those 244 responses are shown in Table P-6 below.
Q. 16 Respondents were asked the time of day at which the initial rape had occurred. 114 youth responded positively to the question. Of these, 52.6% were raped at night; 29.8% during the afternoon and 17.5% during the morning.
Q. 17 The study group was asked how many times they had committed rape in their life. 2018 youth responded to the question. 1954 stated that they had never committed rape, while 64 said that they had. 32.8% of those who had, committed rape only one time. 20.3% of them had raped twice. 17.2% had committed rape three times. 2 youth, 3.1% had raped four times and 26.6% more than four times.
Q. 18 When asked where the first rape took place, 2049 of the study group responded to the question. 129 gave the location while 1920 said the question did not apply to them. The most common place was the forest where 26.4% had been raped. Cars were the next most common place with 24%. 15.5% were raped at the rapists home and 6.2% at the victims home. 12.4% were raped at a friends home. 9.3% were raped in hotels and 6.2% listed other as the place they were raped.
Q. 19 Again, when asked where the last rape took place, 2039 youth responded. 1930 said that the question did not apply to them. 109 (5.3%) gave the location of that rape. Again, the most common place was the forest with 23.9% of the rapes. Cars and hotels were common places with 16.5% and 9.2 respectively. 21.1% rapes occurred at the rapists home while 11 10.1% were at the victims home. 11.9% were at a friends home and 7.3% listed other as the location of the last rape.
Q. 20 The respondents who had raped before were asked who they raped. 1968 youth responded to the question. 1731 of those said that the question did not apply to them. 237 (12%) listed the people who they had raped.
Far above all others were Strangers whom 60% claimed to have raped. 6.8% had raped their girlfriend. 6.2% had raped their boyfriend or their teacher. 5.5% had raped their father. 2.5% had raped their sister. 2.1% had raped a cousin and 1.7% had raped their mother or grandmother. 1.3% had raped their brother or grandfather. 0.8% had raped their aunt and 0.4% had raped their uncle. 3.4% listed other as the person whom they had raped.
Sex for Gain
Q. 33 The survey group was asked if they had ever received money in exchange for sex. Out of 2258 interviewees, 1929 responded . Among those who responded, 3.2% had received money for sex while 1868 had not . 390 did not respond to the question .
Q. 34 They were further asked if they had ever received gifts in exchange for sex. Out of 1932 who responded to the question, 6.2% admitted receiving gifts for sex. 1813 said they had not received gifts for sex. 326 did not respond to the question .
Q. 35 Respondents were asked to indicate whether they had given money or gifts in exchange for sex. Out of 2258, 1270 responded to the question . 4.5% indicated they had, while 95.5% said they had not .
Q. 36 From 2258 interviewees, 1267 responded to the question on giving gifts for sex. 5.7% said that they had while 94.3% had not .
Q. 37 Respondents were asked whether they had been asked for sex by those who gave them lifts. 1270 out 2258 responded to the question . From those who responded, 10.9% had been asked for sex by those who gave them a lift .
Q. 38 A further question was asked as to whether respondents had engaged in sex with those who gave them lifts. 1938 responded to the question of which 3.4% responded positively. 320 did not respond to the question .
Q. 39 Respondents were asked whether they started love affair with persons who gave them lifts. Out of 2258, 1271 responded. 4.3% of those who responded to the question had started a love affair with someone who gave them a lift.
Sex for Gain Findings
Sex for Gain Recommendations
Q. 40 Respondents (2258) were asked if they had been told in the past that they had an STD. 1935 responded to the question. 2.3% indicated that they had been told that they had an STD, and 97.7% had never been told they had STD .
Q. 41 When asked if they had ever been treated for an STD, 1896 youth responded to the question. 2.9% admitted to having received treatment. 97.1% said that they had not.
Q. 42 Of those who had been infected with STDs, 20 gave the frequency of infection in the last one year. For those, 45% had been infected once, 25% twice and 30% three or more times . The other 24 who had been infected with STDs did not specify the number of times they had STDs in the last one year .
Q. 43 All the respondents (44) who said they had been infected with an STD also said they had been treated for the infection . 34 out of 44 specified who treated them . 73.5% said they were treated by a nurse/doctor, 17.6% treated themselves, 2.9% was treated by a traditional healer and 2.9% by a prophet .
Q. 44 The youth interviewed (2258) were asked if they had ever had a homosexual experience. 1945 youth responded to the question . Of those 1945 responses, 2% said yes and 98% no .
Q. 45 When further asked to give the age at which their first homosexual encounter was, 42 youth gave the age . This up from 37 who admitted to the experience . The results are as follows in Table P-
Q. 46 When further asked about the age of their homosexual partner, 37 youth listed that age. Again, the 11 to 15 age group was on top with 37.8%. 18.9% had partners between 6 and 10 years of age. 24.3% had partners between the ages of 2 and 5. And 18.9% had partners 16 years of age and older.
Q. 47 28 respondents stated that they are currently involved in homosexual relationship. Of the 37 respondents who had tried homosexual activities, 75.7% had continued until the date of this survey.
Q. 48 When asked the age of their current homosexual partner, again 37 listed that age. But only 28 respondents had admitted to be in current homosexual relationships.
The most common age for current homosexual partners was 11 to 15 years with 32.4%. Following was the age group 16 to 20 years with 24.3%. Then, 18.9% for the ages of 6 to 10 years, 13.5% aged 21 years and over, and 10.8% who are aged between 2 and 5 years.
Q. 49 Respondents were asked if they had ever made anyone pregnant or been pregnant. Only 0.8% of survey group answered yes.
NOTE: This is a problem question. It could have been split into two questions: 1 for males and 1 for females.
Q. 50 Data Missing
Q. 51 Data Missing
Q. 52 The youth were asked if they or any of their girlfriends had ever had an abortion. 1926 answered the question. 3.7% said that they did know of someone or had an abortion themselves.
Q. 53 The survey group was asked if they have a medical clinic within the school premises. 1903 responded to the question. 35.3% responded "yes".
Q. 54 Those youth who did not have a clinic within the school were asked the distance to the nearest clinic. 1846 youth responded. 38.7% said there is a clinic less than 1 km; 16.7% at 1km; 8.8% at 2km; 9.3% at 3km and 28.7% more than 3 km.
Medical Facilities Findings
Medical Facilities Recommendations
Q. 55 The study group (2258) were asked if they had ever used contraceptives. 1919 youth responded to the question. 12.4% stated that they had.
Q. 56 Those who had used contraceptives were asked the type of contraceptive they had used. 243 responses were recorded. (Multiple responses are possible.) The condom was the most often used contraceptive with 76.5% of the responses. Injections and the pill followed with 11.5% and 9.9% respectively. The least common contraceptive was the IUD with 0.8% of responses.
Q. 57 When asked if they had used contraceptives in the last six months.
Q. 58 Those respondents were asked what type of contraceptives they had used in the last six months. 203 responses were recorded. (Multiple responses were possible.) Again, the condom was the most often used contraceptive with 76.4% of responses. Injections and the pill followed with 11.3% and 9.4% respectively. IUDs came last with 1.0% of responses.
Q. 59 The youth were asked how old they were when they first used contraceptives. 195 youth responded. The most frequently listed age group was 16 to 20 years of age with 52.8% of responses. 43.6% listed 11 to 15 years of age. 1.5% had used contraceptives before the age of 10 and a further 2.1% were older than 20 years at their first use of contraceptives.
Q. 60 Those who used contraceptives were asked who influenced them to use them. 209 responses were recorded (Multiple repones were possible). Boyfriends and Girlfriends were most often listed with 40.2% of responses. Mothers and Fathers were listed with 12.9% and 7.2% respectively. Health Workers were listed on 12.4% of the responses. 12% listed Teachers. Brothers and Cousins each received 4.8% responses. 3.3% listed Sisters. Grandmothers and Uncles were each listed 1% times. And Grandfathers were listed once (0.5%).
Q. 61 The youth were asked if they had ever used condoms. 1942 responded to the question. 17.3% said yes they had used them.
Q. 62 When further asked if they had used condoms in the last six months, 220 youth responded. 9.1% said that they had not. 37.3% said that they had used them sometimes. And 53.6% said they had used them always in the last six months.
Q. 63 In addition, the youth were asked if they had ever broken a condom during sex. 89 youth said that they had. This is 26.5% of the youth who had used condoms.
Q. 64 37 youth said that they had at one time paid for condoms. (11% of those who had used condoms.)
Q. 65 When asked if they had ever needed a condom and not been able to find one in the last year, 66 youth said yes. This is 19.6% of those who had used them.
Q. 66 The study group was asked if it is easy for them to find condoms. 1656 youth responded. 502 of those responses 30.3% said yes it was easy, but 69.7% said that it was difficult.
Q. 67 The youth were asked where they received condoms. 678 responses were recorded (Multiple responses were possible). Far above all others were clinics and hospitals with 82.3% of responses. Chemists were listed 7.2% of the time. Rural Health Motivators received 2.8% of responses. Parents 1.8%. Siblings 1.2%.
Q. 68 The youth (2258) were asked to describe the attitude of health workers when the youth ask them for condoms. 602 youth felt the question relevant to them. 32.4% listed the Health Workers attitude as bad. 67.6% listed the Health Workers attitude as good.
NOTE: A further question could have been added dealing with HW attitudes when youth are treated for STDs.
Drug and Alcohol Usage
Q. 69 The survey group were asked if they had ever used drugs. 1913 responded to the question with 4.9% stating that they had.
Q. 70 When asked what types of drugs they had used (excluding alcohol) 46.8% of respondents listed dagga; 17.7% mandrax and 35.4% listed other.
Q. 71 Those who had used drugs were asked who influenced them to use them 84 youth responded. 83.3% were influenced to use drugs by their peers. Only 16.7% were influenced by other people.
Q. 72 When asked about the location of their drug use 87 youth listed the place (Multiple answers were possible.). Leading the list was parties with 31% of responses. Then, at home with 30.9% of responses; and schools with 17.9% of responses. 22.6% of responses listed misc. other locations.
Q. 73 When asked about their drug use in the last year, 83 youth admitted to it. This is a high number of those who have every used them (83 of 93/89.2%). 25.3% of respondents admitted to daily use. 10.7% said once a week; 31% of responses measured this drug use in months and 32.1% of responses listed other.
GRAPH (Tried drugs 93 vs. Still Using 83)
Q. 74 The youth (2258) were asked the age of their first drug use. 49 responses were listed. The age group of 11 to 15 years was the most active in drug experimentation with 55.1% of responses. 16 years and older was second with 34.7%. Below the age of 11 was only 10.2% of responses.
Drug Use Findings
Drug Use Recommendations
Q. 75 The survey group (2258) were asked if they had taken alcohol before. Only 1424 responded. 18.4% confirmed having tried alcohol.
Q. 76 When asked who had influenced them to take alcohol 168 responses out of a total of 72.7% cited friends as the person. Boyfriends 8.2% and girlfriends 6.5% followed. "Other" was cited by 12.6%.
Q. 77 Respondents were asked where they use alcohol. Of the 231 who had taken it, Parties with 40.2% of responses and home 30.1% of responses led the list. Following, were picnics with 11.3%; school with 10.8%, and other places with 7.5% of responses.
Q. 78 The survey group was asked about their alcohol use in the last year. 856 (37.9%) did not respond to the question while 1206 (53.4%) said the question did not apply to them. 196 respondents (8.7%) listed the frequency of alcohol use this last year. The majority of those youth who are taking alcohol are using it no more than once a month, 68.9%. 22.4% are using it weekly and 8.7% on a daily basis.
Q.79 When asked at what age they started taking alcohol, 845 youth (37.4% of survey) did not respond. A further 1165 (51.6%) said the question did not apply to them. 248 (11%) listed the age. The results are as follows in table P-.
Experimentation with alcohol greatly increased in the teenage years. 46.4% tried alcohol between the ages of 11-15 years. A further 39.5% first tried it between the ages of 16 and 20 years.
Q. 93 The survey group (2258 youth) were asked if they presently smoked tobacco. Only 1396 (61.8%) answered the question. 2.7% of responses said they do.
Q. 94 When the group (2258) was asked if they had ever smoked tobacco 1398 (61.9%) responded to the question. 11.1% confirmed having tried tobacco use.
Love/Sex with Teachers
Q. 80 The 2258 survey youth were ask if they have ever been in love with a teacher. Only 1419 (62.8%) answered the question. 5.1% said that they had at one time been in love with a teacher.
Q. 81 When the 2258 youth were asked if they had ever had sex with a teacher, 3.3% of respondents admitted to such an act. 36.3% youth failed to answer the question.
Q. 82 The survey group was asked, "of those who had sex with teachers", when did that happen in their schooling. 51 youth (2.3% survey group) told when that happened. Yet, only 47 youth had admitted this in question 81.
Of those 51 youth, 37.3% had sexual relations while in primary school. 62.7% did this as secondary and high school students.
Q. 83 When the survey group was asked if they currently had a love affair with a teacher, 44 said yes. This is 93.6% of the 47 who admitted to it earlier (question 81).
Q. 84 The survey group was also asked how long their sexual affair with a teacher had been going on. 22 youth (46.8% of the 47 youth who admitted to affairs) stated the length of time. 45.5% measured the affair in weeks. A further 14.9% measured it in months. And 48.9% had a sexual affair with a teacher for more than a year.
Q. 85 The 2258 survey youth were asked, "of those who had love affairs with teachers what was the marital status of that teacher?" 72 students (3.2% of the 2258) listed that age. Yet only 47 youth had admitted to affairs.
The majority of teachers having affairs with youth were single, 56.9% of 72 responses. 25% of those teachers were married or co-habiting. Another 18.1% were either divorced, separated or widowed.
Q. 86 When further asked how many teachers they had engaged in sexual affairs with, 52 youth (2.3% of survey group) gave answers. Yet, only 47 had admitted to affairs. The majority of responses, 59.6% had sex with only one teacher. A further 40.4% had sex with 2 or more teachers.
Student/Teacher Relationships Findings
Student/Teacher Relationships Recommendations
HIV and AIDS
Q. 88 The 2258 survey youth were asked if they had ever been told that they were HIV+. 1402 responded to the question while 856 failed to answer it. 2.5% of the youth agreed that they had been told.
Q. 89 No Data
Q. 90 When asked if they knew anyone who was HIV+, 1410 (62.4%) responded. 18.6% agreed that they knew someone infected with the AIDS virus.
Q. 91 The survey group (2258) was asked if they had ever been told that one of their past lovers was HIV infected. 1417 (62.8%) responded. 3.4% confirmed that they had been told of a past lover being HIV+.
Q. 92 When further asked if they had ever been told of a past lover who died of AIDS, 1415 (62.9%) responded. Of these, 3.2% admitted that they had.
Q. 109 Finally, the 2258 school youth who were surveyed were asked where they get their information about STDs and AIDS. (Multiple answers were recorded.)
Nurses were the number one source of information on STDs and AIDS with 20.6% of responses. Second, was Radio with 18.4%. Teachers were next with 17.0% and Newspapers with 13.6%. Following these were TV with 11.8%; Friends with 8.3%; Parents with 6.2%; Churches with 2.8 % and "Other" with 1.3%.
Q. 95 When asked if they had participated in Umhlanga or Lusekwane in the last 2 years, 1386 (61.3%) responded. 30.8% confirmed their participation in the last two years.
Q. 97 No Question
Q. 98 The survey group was asked why they attended Umhlanga and Lusekwane. 974 responses were given. Only 510 youth had said that they had attended (Multiple responses were given). The majority of youth, 52.8% attend because they want to. 14.9% listed "forced by parents" and "Visiting the Trade Fair". A further 13.7% cited meeting boyfriends/ Girlfriends.
Q. 99 When the survey group was asked if they had ever had sex during Umhlanga or Lusekwane, 72 responded by saying yes. This is 14.1% of all those who had attended.
Traditional Ceremonies Findings
Q. 101 The 2258 youth were asked if they believe in God. 866 (38.3%) did not answer the question. 1392 (61.7%) responded. 90.6% stated that they do believe in God.
Q. 102 When further asked if they were saved, 959 (76.1% of those who believe in God) said yes.
Q. 103 The survey group (2258) were asked about the frequency of their Church attendance. 1000 (44.3%) responded to the question.
The majority (74.5%) of those who attend church attend every weekend.
Q. 104 The 2258 youth in the survey group were asked if they knew of any student in their school who had committed suicide. Only 1279 (56.6%) responded to the question. 979 (43.4%) did not. Of those 1279 who responded, 15.3% stated that they did.
Q. 105 The students (2258) were further asked who they talked to when they had problems to sort out. 1197 (53%) responded to the question. 1061 (46.9%) did not. The largest group of students went to their parents for help with their problems 55.2%. Friends were the second most popular answer with 25.6%. Teachers followed with 12.4% of responses and only 6.8% thought of killing themselves.
Problem Solving/Suicide Findings
Problem Solving/Suicide Recommendations
Q. 106 The survey youth (2258) were asked if they had ever known a student of their school who had been involved in a car accident. 1520 (67.3%) responded to the question. 738 (32.7%) did not respond. Of the 1520 responses, 56.6% stated that they did know of someone. 43.4% said they did not.
Q. 107 The youth (22580 were further asked if they knew of any student who had died in a car accident. 1305 (57.8%) responded while 953 (42.2%) did not. 43.3% said they did know of someone while 56.7% knew of no one.
Q. 108 The survey group (2258) were asked if they had personally been involved in a car accident. 948 (42%) did not answer the question and 1310 (58%) responded. Of that 1310, 15.2% stated that they had and 84.8% had not
First Sex Recommendations Q1-9
Current Sexual Activity Recommendations
Sex for Gain Recommendation
Drug Use Recommendations
Student/Teacher Relationships Recommendations
Problem Solving/Suicide Recommendations
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