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Mndebele, N E

 

 

SWAZILAND SECONDARY/HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ RISKS THAT MAY PROMOTE HIV INFECTION AND THE SPREAD OF AIDS

(Part 1)

NOZIPHO EUGENIA MNDEBELE
NATIONAL CURRICULUM CENTRE

Click here for Part 2 of this paper
Click here for Part 3 of this paper
Click here for Part 4 of this paper

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to thank the following people/organisations for their assistance in making this exercise a success:
SERA: For being there as a Research Organisation and giving financial support.
SNAP Personnel and Millicent Obaso: For data analysis and the layout of the Report.
Special thanks also go to Mr Rudolph Maziya former Project Manager of SNAP who provided moral support, useful information, skills and comments on the design of the study and for making sure that the study was indeed undertaken.


BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION

The study was initiated by the principle investigator Mrs Nozipho Mndebele of Swaziland Educational Research Association (SERA) drawing its members from the University of Swaziland, College Lecturers and Curriculum Developers in Swaziland. The study was part preparation for presentation to the Associations bi-annual symposium which was scheduled to take place in July 1997. The investigator, wrote a project proposal and approached SNAP to work with her to facilitate data gathering from school pupils in the four regions of Swaziland. She involved SNAP in redefining the objectives of the study and to develop questionnaires.

SNAP was interested in the findings and recommendations of the survey to streamline their youth programme for increased impact.

METHODOLOGY

Secondary and high school students in the four regions were targeted for the study. Forty two schools were randomly selected from 165 schools in all the 4 regions of Swaziland (Manzini, Hhohho, Shiselweni and Lubombo) using school registers. Head teachers from the 42 schools were brought together on 21 January 1995 for briefing and to solicit their support for the study.

The original plan was to involve 6300 pupils but the actual number who were given questionnaires were 3780, but only 2258 were used for analysis. On the 30 of September 1995, representatives from the selected schools were also called for a briefing and orientation on how to collect the data.

Questionnaires were delivered to the trained students in the selected schools between 23 and 27 October 1995 to initiate data collection from their peers.

Data collection took place between 30 October and November 1995. The questionnaire (which was multiple choice style, see appendix) was distributed to 3780 students drawn from forms 1,2 and 4 (form 3 and 5 students were involved in their final exams therefore did not participate in the study). From each school 90 students were randomly selected (30 from each form). The trained student in each school convened a meeting with the 90 sample students and read out one question at a time from the questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed by individual respondents and returned to the principal investigator, between 6 to 10 November 1995, who in turn submitted the completed the questionnaires to SNAP for analysis and report writing.

The fact that the process of completing questionnaires was presided over by peers, this might have encouraged interviewees to respond freely and in a relaxed manner to all questions.

LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS

Several constraints were encountered both by the principle investigating and the consultant who was hired to analyse the data. Highlight of the major constraints is provided below.

1) The data collection instruments did not allow for probing and therefore some of the questions at and some were not answered properly.

And thus although 3780 questionnaires were distributed, only 2258 have been included in the analysis

2) The peer educators who read out the questionnaires to the respondents lacked detailed knowledge in STD, HIV and AIDS as well as experience in facilitating data collection. Since they worked without supervision it led to incomplete responses in some cases which could not be explained later to clarify some issues.

3) The use of multiple choice approach limited the amount of information that was provided in the questionnaire and this limited qualitative information which could have been useful in explaining some of the findings.

THE FINDINGS

SECTION ONE KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF ABOUT AIDS

The objectives of this section were

1) To find out if secondary/high school students know the three basic modes of HIV transmission.

2) To find out if secondary/high school students know the three main basic modes of preventing HIV infection through sexual intercourse.

3) To find out if secondary/high school students know what the acronyms STD, HIV, AIDS, TASC, FLAS, SHAPE, and SNAP stand for.

4) To quantify the knowledge of secondary/high school students on basic facts about HIV/AIDS.

5) To quantify the knowledge of secondary/high school students on HIV prevalence in Swaziland.

6) To find out if secondary/high school students know which age group is most affected by AIDS.

7) To find out if secondary/high school students know the relationship between HIV infection and having an STD.

8) To determine the extent of misconceptions about the transmission of HIV amongst secondary/high school students.

These objectives were addressed by asking thirteen questions analysed in the following sections.

Question One

What do the following abbreviations stand for?

STD  HIV  AIDS  TASC  FLAS  SHAPE   SNAP

Table K-1

UNDERSTANDING OF COMMON AIDS RELATED ACRONYMS

Acronym

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

Correct

R’spns

%

Correct

R’spns

%

Correct

R’spns

%

Correct

No. Of Correct Responses

%

 

STD

450

65.2

306

84.5

423

69.8

347

57.8

1526

67.6

HIV

135

19.6

73

20.2

96

15.8

107

17.8

411

18.2

AIDS

419

60.7

225

62.1

402

66.3

433

72.2

1479

65.5

TASC

4

0.6

6

1.7

23

3.8

2

0.3

35

1.6

FLAS

443

64.2

225

62.2

415

68.5

419

69.8

1502

66.5

SHAPE

74

10.7

69

19.1

48

7.9

16

2.7

207

9.2

SNAP

325

47.1

258

71.2

336

55.4

335

55.8

1254

55.5

Average

264

38.3

166

45.9

249

41.1

240

31.5

916

40.6

Correct Answer: n/a
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 2257 (99.95%)
No response 1 ( 0.05%)

National:

Respondents were requested to write in full what each of the above acronyms stands for. Of the seven acronyms, STD was the best known with 1526 (67.7%). The second best known acronym was FLAS 1502 (66.5%). The third best known was AIDS, known by 1479 (65.5%). SNAP was known by 1254 (55.5%) of the respondents. The least known of the acronyms were TASC (35 people, 1.6%), SHAPE (207 people, 9.2%) and HIV (411 people, 18.2%).

The findings show that over 65% of those interviewed knew what AIDS stands for but less than 20% knew the meaning of HIV. Knowledge of both AIDS and HIV are necessary for the prevention and control of infection. Balanced knowledge of the two should be encouraged.

Regional:

Taking all of the acronyms as a group, the National Average was 40.6% of respondents giving a correct answer. Hhohho and Manzini regions exceeded this with 45.9% and 41.1% respectively. Shiselweni and Lubombo regions were below average with 38.3% and 31.5% respectively.

All organisations were best known in the regions where they exist. SNAP and SHAPE were best known in Hhohho region and their offices are in Mbabane. TASC was best known in Manzini Region and their office is in Manzini. FLAS was known in all regions and they have branch offices across the country.

Question Two

The disease AIDS is caused by a(n)? a)Bacteria  b)Virus  c)Protozoa   d)Insect

Table K-2

RESPONDENTS KNOWLEDGE OF THE CAUSE OF THE DISEASE AIDS

Cause

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

No. of Responses

%

Bacteria

33

5.2

6

1.7

14

2.4

15

2.7

68

3.2

Virus

582

92.4

335

96.0

542

94.8

530

95.0

1989

94.3

Protozoa

12

1.9

6

1.7

9

1.6

12

2.2

39

1.8

Insect

3

0.5

2

0.6

7

1.2

1

0.2

13

0.6

TOTAL

630

100

349

100

572

100

558

100

2109

99.9

Correct Answer: Virus
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 2109 (93.4%)
No response 149 ( 6.6%)

National:

Table K-2 shows respondents’ knowledge of what causes the disease AIDS. Respondents were requested to select and mark the correct answer out of four choices; bacteria, fungus, protozoa and insect.

Two thousand one hundred and nine youth responded to the question (93.4%). Only 149 (6.6%) did not respond. Over 94% knew the correct answer, that AIDS is caused by a virus. Less than 6% did not know the answer. Those who did not respond to the question are assumed not to know the answer.

Regional:

There was little difference between the regions. In each of the four regions, over 92% had this knowledge. Hhohho region was first with 96.0% of their respondents giving the correct answer. Shiselweni region was low with 92.4% correct.


Recommendation:

a. The Swaziland National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme and their partners have done well in getting this basic message to the public. It should continue to be a part of educational strategies starting with children in primary schools.

Question Three

What is meant by the term "window period"?

Table K-3

UNDERSTANDING OF THE TERM "WINDOW PERIOD"

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

R’spns

% Correct

R’spns

% Correct

R’spns

% Correct

R’spns

% Correct

Correct Responses

%

128

19.0

72

20.5

103

17.9

57

9.7

360

16.4

Correct Answer: n/a
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 2191 (97.0%)
No response 67 ( 3.0%)

National:

Table K-3 above shows that a full 97% of those surveyed answered the question (2191 out of 2258). But of those who responded, only 16.4% knew the meaning of Window Period.

Regional:

More students in Hhohho region knew the meaning of Window Period (20.5% of respondents). In Lubombo region only 9.7% knew what Window Period means. Nineteen and 18% were recorded in Shiselweni and Manzini regions respectively.

Recommendations:

a. This is important information, especially for people who might want to test for HIV. These figures are low for all regions and future educational campaigns should strive to correct this weakness.

Question Four

After being infected with HIV, how long does it take on average for one to become sick (showing signs and symptoms)?

a) 1-2 years b) 3-4 years c) 5-10 years d) 15-20 years e) None of the above

Table K-4

LENGTH OF TIME TO BECOME SICK AFTER HIV INFECTION

Years

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

No. of Responses

%

1 - 2

92

18.2

42

12.6

45

8.3

63

12.6

242

12.3

3 - 4

107

21.1

86

25.7

34

15.5

80

16.0

357

18.1

5 - 10

254

50.2

156

46.7

274

50.6

237

47.4

921

46.8

15 - 20

53

10.5

20

6.0

64

11.6

46

9.2

183

9.3

None

89

15.0

30

9.0

74

13.7

74

14.8

267

13.6

TOTAL

595

100

334

100

491

100

500

100

1970

100

Correct Answer: 5-10 years
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 1970 (87.2%)
No response 288 (12.8%)

National:

Table K-4 shows the level of understanding is very low in all regions. Only 46.8% of those who responded (1970) gave the correct answer - that it takes 5-10 years to develop full blown AIDS after infection with HIV. Fifty three percent gave incorrect answers.

Regional:

Manzini and Shiselweni regions had the highest number of correct responses with 50.6% and 50.2% respectively. Lubombo and Hhohho regions had 47.4% and 46.7%.

Recommendations:

a. One of the factors which makes AIDS such a problem today is the long period which a person can be infective to others without himself/herself being sick. A better understanding of this situation is important in the prevention of HIV. Educational campaigns should put greater emphasis on this information.

NOTE: The period of 11-14 years was omitted in the multiple choices provided to the respondents. It is therefore difficult to tell whether some respondents would have chosen this omitted age group.

Thirteen percent (267) of those who responded said all the choices provided did not apply. Either they thought the correct answer is 11-14 years or possibly they did not know the answer.

Question Five

People who get STDs have...

a) a lower risk of getting infected with the AIDS virus than those who do not have STDs;
b) a higher risk of getting infected with the AIDS virus than those who do not have STDs;
c) have no risk of getting infected.

Table K-5

RISK STATUS OF STD PATIENTS TO HIV INFECTION

Risk

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

No. of Responses

%

Lower

70

15.8

27

10.5

42

9.2

35

10.4

174

11.6

Higher

289

65.4

203

79.3

372

81.2

238

70.6

1102

73.8

No Risk

83

18.8

26

10.2

44

9.6

64

19.0

217

14.5

TOTAL

442

100

256

100

458

100

337

100

1493

100

Correct Answer: Higher Risk
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 1493 (66.1%)
No response 765 (33.9%)

National:

Table K-5 shows that while 66.1% of the total sample responded to the question, 33.9% did not respond.

Of those who responded, 73.8% (1102) gave the correct answer - that people with STDs have a higher risk of HIV infection. Of respondents, 14.5% believe that there is no risk of infection, while 11.6% thought the risk was low.

Those who did not respond to the question (33.9%)- which may imply that they did not know the answer- combined with those who gave incorrect answers make up 51.2% (1156) of the total sample.

Regional:

Manzini and Hhohho regions gave the highest number of correct responses with 81.2% and 79.3% respectively. Lubombo and Shiselweni regions were lower with 70.6% and 65.4%.

Recommendations:

a. Considering the importance of the relationship between STDs and HIV transmission, work should be done to raise the level of awareness in all regions.

b. STD treatment centres should offer HIV counselling to all STD patients.

 

Question Six

People who are sick from being infected with HIV are said to have...

a) AIDS b) HIV Infection c) TB d) Syphilis

Table K-6

PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE SICK FROM HIV INFECTION

Disease

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

No. of Responses

%

AIDS

392

63.4

216

63.5

3290

56.7

346

67.3

1274

62.6

HIV

201

32.5

116

34.1

229

40.6

151

29.4

697

34.2

TB

15

2.4

6

1.8

5

0.9

11

2.1

37

1.8

Syphilis

10

1.6

2

0.6

10

1.8

6

1.2

28

1.4

TOTAL

618

100

340

100

3534

100

514

100

2036

100

Correct Answer: AIDS
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 2036 (90.1%)
No response 222 ( 9.9%)

National:

62.6% of the youth who responded knew the correct answer - AIDS. However, over one third of the respondents (34.2%) believed people who are sick from HIV infection are said to have HIV infection. Only 3.2% thought they have TB or syphilis. The difference between AIDS and HIV infection was not clear to more than one third of the youth. Responses to a different question about what people who are HIV infected yet still healthy are said to have, showed similar confusion as shown in Table K-5 above.

Regional:

Lubombo region had the highest number of correct answers with 67.3%. Manzini region was lowest with 56.7%. Hhohho and Shiselweni regions had 63.5% and 63.4% respectively.

Recommendations:

a. Preventing the spread of HIV requires a clear understanding of the difference between HIV infection and AIDS. People can be misled into thinking it is safe to have sexual intercourse with someone who is not visibly sick. Education programmes should make the difference between HIV infection and AIDS clear to everyone.


Question Seven

People who are infected with HIV yet healthy are said to have...

A) AIDS b) HIV Infection c) TB d) Syphilis

Table K-7

PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE HIV INFECTED YET HEALTHY

Disease

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

No. of Responses

%

AIDS

257

44.3

109

33.6

133

24.5

207

43.3

706

36.4

HIV

274

47.2

196

60.5

367

67.6

238

49.8

1075

56.3

TB

20

3.4

7

2.2

14

2.6

12

2.5

53

2.7

Syphilis

29

5.0

12

3.7

29

5.3

21

4.4

91

4.6

TOTALS

580

99.9

324

100

543

100

478

100

1925

100

Correct Answer: HIV
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 1925 (85.3%)
No response 333 (14.7%)

National:

A greater number refrained from answering this question. The number of people who knew the correct answer were fewer than who knew the previous question number 6. (62.6% vs. 55.8%) This finding shows that the concepts of HIV Infection and AIDS are confusing to the youth. The findings further show that the term HIV infection is understood less than AIDS. Only 7.5% of the respondents thought those who have HIV infection but are still healthy have either TB or Syphilis.

Regional:

Manzini and Hhohho regions had the highest number of correct answers with 67.6% and 60.5% respectively. Lubombo and Shiselweni followed with 49.8% and 47.2%.

 Image26.gif (3588 bytes)

  These two Graphs try to visually display the confusion among respondents between the meaning of HIV Infection and AIDS.

Recommendations:

a. Preventing the spread of HIV requires a clear understanding of the difference between HIV infection and AIDS. People can be misled into thinking it is safe to have sexual intercourse with someone who is not visibly sick. Education programmes should make the difference between HIV infection and AIDS clear to everyone.

 

Question Eight

Name three ways in which the AIDS virus can be spread.

Table K-8

TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF HIV

Disease

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

TOTAL

 

Correct

Correct

Correct

Correct

No. of Responses

%

Blood

499

365

654

506

2024

89.6

Sex

632

382

651

587

1902

84.2

Mother to Child

40

45

69

34

188

8.3

Correct Answer: n/a
Total sample size 2258 (x3=6774)
Responses to the question 5033 (74.3%)
No response 1741 (25.7%)

National:

This question was open-ended and respondents were to list 3 ways in which HIV is transmitted.

Many respondents gave double responses. It is therefore not possible to express the responses in percentages. (i.e. sharing razor/blood transfusion=blood, Many sexual partners/sex with prostitute=sex) The majority of the responses (2024) were related to blood as a means of transmitting HIV. Sex was ranked as number two with 1902 responses. Mother to child (vertical transmission) was least cited with only 188 responses.

Regional:

Since percentages cannot be compared and regions had different numbers of possible respondents it is impossible to compare regions. We can say that ‘in general’ all regions could list blood and sex as transmission routes for HIV. But, Vertical Transmission (Mother to Child) was seldom mentioned in all regions. Respondents were only allowed three answers. Though it cannot be assumed that Vertical Transmission is unknown, we can safely say that respondents do not think of it as a top priority.

Recommendations:

a. More research should be done to detail the knowledge of Vertical Transmission among youth. Since many of these youth have reached or are near child bearing age, this information is very important to them. They are also among the highest in terms of HIV infection. For females who are HIV positive, information on Vertical Transmission is essential in the decision to bear children.

 

Table : K-8B

Breakdown or Responses listed as Blood

 

 

Answers

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

No. of Responses

No. of Responses

No. of Responses

No. of Responses

Total Responses

%

Blood Contact

212

126

201

151

690

30.6

Transfusion

70

82

127

69

348

15.4

Razors

14

35

91

61

201

8.9

Toothbrushes

17

16

33

17

83

3.7

Needles/Injection

119

95

166

116

496

22.0

Trad. Healers

1

0

1

3

5

0.2

Combinations

66

11

35

89

201

8.9

TOTAL

499

365

654

506

2024

89.6

 

NOTE: Table K-8 B shows the breakdown of specific answers which were classified as "Blood" in Table K-8.

* Primary answers grouped together to form the blood section of Question 8 are:
Blood Contact
Transfusion
Razors
Toothbrushes
Needles/Injections
Traditional Healers
Combinations

Many respondents gave a combination of responses. The primary combinations were:
razors and injection
razors and toothbrushes
injections and toothbrushes
blood contact and transfusions

Traditional Healers were seldom given as a reply, but this could be misleading. In Swazi culture, razors are used to administer medicines. This is often called the "Swazi Injection". We cannot know how many of the people who responded with ‘razors’ or ‘razors and injection’ actually were referring to practices of the Traditional Healers.

 

Table K-8 S

Breakdown of Responses listed as Sex

Answers

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

No. of Responses

No. of Responses

No. of Responses

No. of Responses

Total

Responses

%

Multiple Partners

122

83

87

114

406

17.7

Unprotected sex

88

58

76

69

291

12.7

Rape

3

1

0

0

4

0.2

Sexual Contact

451

260

470

404

1585

69.0

Other

0

2

5

3

10

0.4

TOTALS

664

404

638

590

2296

100

NOTES:

a. ‘Other’ includes such answers as Polygamy, Prostitution, Oral Sex,

b. Under ‘Multiple Partners’ respondents were split as to who had multiple partners. Some said, "I was unfaithful" while others said, "My partner was unfaithful".

 

Question Nine

Name three ways in which the spread of HIV through sexual intercourse can be prevented.

Table K-9

PREVENTION OF HIV INFECTION THROUGH SEX

Method

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

%

 

%

 

%

 

%

 

No. of Responses

%

Abstinence

38.7

45.6

45.5

37.5

933

41.3

One Partner

40.7

54.4

49.3

39.0

1011

47.8

Condom Use

30.4

80.4

84.4

72.3

1447

64.1

Correct Answer: n/a
Total sample size 2258 (x3=6774)
Responses to the question 4454 (65.8%)
No response 2320 (34.2%)

National:

Question was open-ended and respondents were to list 3 ways in which HIV transmission can be prevented during sex.

Table K-9 shows that of the 2258 youth who were surveyed 64.1% (1447) listed use of condoms as a means of preventing HIV transmission during sex. 47.8% had listed faithfulness to one partner as a means of prevention, while 41.3% listed abstinence.

Regional:

Recommendations:

a. These numbers are too low in all categories and across all regions. Education programmes should strive to alleviate this lack of knowledge.

 

Comments:

a. Allowing respondents to give any answer they choose left us with many answers which are difficult to classify.

 

A further breakdown of incorrect answers will pinpoint some of the misconceptions.

Question Ten

According to current information, what percentage of sexually active people are estimated to be infected with the AIDS virus in Swaziland?

a) 7.1-10.3%  b)15.0-17.5% c) 18.0-23.0% d) 25.9-30.4%

Table K-10

NUMBER OF SEXUALLY ACTIVE PEOPLE HIV INFECTED IN SWAZILAND

%

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

No. of Responses

%

7.1-10.3

84

15.4

29

10.2

63

13.2

69

16.1

245

14.1

15.0-17.5

106

19.4

41

14.5

87

18.2

76

17.8

310

17.9

18.0-23.0

98

17.9

76

26.9

104

21.8

83

19.4

361

20.8

25.9-30.4

258

47.3

137

48.4

224

46.9

200

46.7

819

47.2

TOTAL

546

100

283

100

478

100

428

100

1735

100

Correct Answer: 18-23%
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 1735 (76.8%)
No response 523 (23.2%)

Table K-10 reveals that a full 23.2% of those surveyed did not respond to the question.

Only 20.8% of those who responded gave the correct answer- 18.0-23.0%.

Regional:

All regions did poorly on this question. Hhohho region had the greatest percentage of correct answers with 26.9%. Manzini region came second with 21.8%. Lubombo and Shiselweni regions followed with 19.4% and 17.9% respectively.

Comments:

a. Again, some options were omitted from the survey. From 10.3 to 15.0% and 23.0 to 25.9% were not available as choices.

 

Recommendations:

a. Education campaigns should try to clarify this statistic. Educators must be careful to specify exactly what group of people they are talking about when giving statistics (i.e. 19% of population vs. 19% of sexually active members of population).

 

Question Eleven

Among young people age 15 to 19, which gender would you say is more infected?

a) boys b) girls c) both

Table: K-11

MOST INFECTED GENDER IN THE 15-19 YEAR AGE GROUP

Gender

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

R’spns

%

No. of Responses

%

Boys

35

5.5

25

7.2

39

6.9

24

4.5

123

5.9

Girls

156

24.4

106

30.5

171

29.8

121

22.8

554

26.5

Both

448

70.1

216

62.2

363

63.4

386

72.7

1413

67.6

TOTAL

639

100

347

100

573

100

531

100

2090

100

Correct Answer: Girls
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 2090 (92.6%)
No response 168 ( 7.4%)

National:

There is significant documentation that girls tend to be more easily infected due to their biological and physiological make-up. As shown in Table K-11, a large number of young boys and girls do not seem to know this, (73.5% of respondents gave incorrect answers) yet they need this information, particularly the girls, in order for them to take maximum precautions to protect themselves from infection with HIV.

Regional:

The differences between regions was minimal. Hhohho and Manzini regions were on top with 30.5% and 29.8% respectively. Shiselweni and Lubombo regions followed with 24.4% and 22.8%

Recommendations:

a. AIDS prevention and control programmes should ensure that the youth understand not only the statistics, but the physical reasons for the situation. This will help them to understand the reasons for practising such preventative measures.

 

Question Twelve

Name three things which place people at risk of becoming infected with HIV through sexual intercourse.

Table K-12

FACTORS WHICH INCREASE RATE OF HIV INFECTION DURING SEX

Factor

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

%

%

%

%

No. of Responses

%

STDs

0.0

2.4

0.6

4.3

39

1.7

Multiple Partners

18.7

35.4

38.6

12.8

568

25.2

Sex Without Condom

17.1

30.1

26.1

17.2

488

21.6

Average

11.9

22.6

21.8

11.4

 

 

20.0

Correct Answer: n/a
Total sample size 2258 (x3=6774)
Responses to the question 1867 (29.0%)
No response 4807 (71.0%)

National:

Table K-12 indicates that the majority of respondents did not give three answers to this question. Multiple Partners and Unprotected Sex were the most listed correct answers with 25.2% and 21.6% respectively. Only 1.7% of respondents listed having an STD as something which increases HIV infection chances.

Regional:

Hhohho and Manzini regions were above the National average of listing any of the three correct responses with 22.6% and 21.8%. Lubombo and Shiselweni followed with 17.2% and 17.1%.

 

Recommendations:

a. AIDS Prevention programmes should put more emphasis on means of prevention to bring about behaviour change. We must be clear about ‘what behaviours to change’.

 

Question Thirteen

Which ones of the following practices place people at risk of becoming infected with the AIDS virus? (Cross all that apply)

a) kissing b)sexual intercourse c) contact with blood d) sharing of utensils
e) shaking hands f) hugging g) sharing the same toilet facilities
h) mosquito bites I) sharing the same car/bus

Table: K-13

PRACTICES WHICH PUT PEOPLE AT RISK OF HIV INFECTION

Activity

Shiselweni

Hhohho

Manzini

Lubombo

NATIONAL TOTAL

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

R’spns

%

 

No. of Responses

%

Kissing

122

17.7

43

6.5

115

19.0

98

16.3

378

16.7

Sex

526

76.2

305

45.9

529

87.3

441

73.5

1801

79.8

Blood Contact

393

57.0

204

30.7

399

65.8

286

47.7

1282

56.8

Sharing

Utensils

83

12.0

43

6.5

62

10.2

73

12.2

261

11.6

Shaking Hands

18

2.6

4

0.6

4

0.6

7

1.2

33

1.5

Hugging

29

4.2

2

0.3

8

1.3

18

3.0

57

2.5

Sharing Toilets

50

7.2

19

2.9

41

6.8

32

5.3

142

6.3

Mosquito

132

19.1

44

6.6

125

2.5

70

11.7

371

16.4

Sharing

Car/Bus

0

0.0

1

0.2

11

1.8

3

0.5

15

0.6

Correct Answer: n/a
Total sample size 2258
Responses to the question 1493 (66.1%)
No response 765

National:

Sex was listed as a means of HIV transmission by 79.8% of the respondents. Blood followed with 56.8% of the respondents listing it. Mosquitos were the top incorrect answer with 16.4%. Kissing was the second incorrect answer with 16.7%.

Regional:

It should be noted that the areas where mosquitos are more common were more likely to list mosquitos as a factor. And with kissing, more probing would clarify what type of kissing.

Comments:

a. Table K-13 indicates an important difference in how questions are asked. When compared to question 8, answers for blood and sex varied greatly. These differences are listed in the graphs following.

It would appear from question 8 and question 13, that there is some difference of opinion on what is meant by ‘sharing utensils’

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RECOMMENDATIONS:

Q2 The Swaziland National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme and their partners have done well in getting this basic message to the public. It should continue to be a part of educational strategies starting with children in primary schools.

Q3 This is important information, especially for people who might want to test for HIV. These figures are low for all regions and future educational campaigns should strive to correct this weakness.

Q4 One of the factors which makes AIDS such a problem today is the long period which a person can be infective to others without himself/herself being sick. A better understanding of this situation is important in the prevention of HIV. Educational campaigns should put greater emphasis on this information

Q5 Considering the importance of the relationship between STDs and HIV transmission, work should be done to raise the level of awareness in all regions. STD treatment centres should offer HIV counselling to all STD patients.

Q6 Preventing the spread of HIV requires a clear understanding of the difference between HIV infection and AIDS. People can be misled into thinking it is safe to have sexual intercourse with someone who is not visibly sick. Education programmes should make the difference between HIV infection and AIDS clear to everyone.

Q7 Preventing the spread of HIV requires a clear understanding of the difference between HIV infection and AIDS. People can be misled into thinking it is safe to have sexual intercourse with someone who is not visibly sick. Education programmes should make the difference between HIV infection and AIDS clear to everyone.

Q8 More research should be done to detail the knowledge of Vertical Transmission among youth. Since many of these youth have reached or are near child bearing age, this information is very important to them. They are also among the highest in terms of HIV infection. For females who are HIV positive, information on Vertical Transmission is essential in the decision to bear children.

Q9 These numbers are too low in all categories and across all regions. Education programmes should strive to alleviate this lack of knowledge.

Q10 Education campaigns should try to clarify this statistic. Educators must be careful to specify exactly what group of people they are talking about when giving statistics (i.e. 19% of population vs. 19% of sexually active members of population).

Q11 AIDS prevention and control programmes should ensure that the youth understand not only the statistics, but the physical reasons for the situation. This will help them to understand the reasons for practising such preventative measures.

Q12 AIDS Prevention programmes should put more emphasis on means of prevention to bring about behaviour change. We must be clear about ‘what behaviours to change’.

 

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